脫硫脫硝深度除塵一體塔技術/Desulfurization, Denitration and Deep Dedusting Integrated Tower
脫硫、脫硝深度除塵一體塔 新工藝介紹
Technique Features of Desulfurization, Denitration and Deep Dedusting Integrated Tower


◆ 高新技術  Advanced technology, International initiative
◆ 低排放  Ultra-low emissions
◆ 水系統全部閉式循環,無二次污染  Totally enclosed water circulation system, no secondary pollution
◆ 設備占地面積小  Equipment covers a small area
◆ 設備造價及運營成本比傳統工藝低   Equipment cost and operating cost lower than those of the traditional
◆ 可以燃燒高硫煤

特有技術:脫硫脫硝深度除塵一體塔技術介紹 
Technique Features and Performance Parameters of Desulfurization, Denitration and Deep Dedusting Integrated Tower


(一)新技術的特點及優勢 / Features and advantages of the new technology

1、脫氮效率高

對煙氣溫度無特殊要求,脫氮效率高達85-95%由于采用了先進的氧化還原技術且與脫硫同步完成。故此運行費用低,這是目前“SCR”和“SNCR”不能達到的。脫硫脫硝用水全部閉路循環,且配置了中水脫氯裝置不向外排廢水,無二次污染。在煙氣脫硫脫硝塔內,利用多道逆順向噴淋法,將吸收液噴入煙氣中,在高速氣流的帶動下,吸收液被吹成霧狀,比表面積大,使氣液接觸更加充分。從而確保了脫硫脫硝效率的穩定。

2、脫硫脫硝除塵一體化 

由于氧化還原后的循環液活性好,故此對SO2的吸收速度快且效率高。根據試驗結果表明脫硫效率高達99.1%,石灰-石膏法及石灰石-石膏法所不能達到的。由于塔體上部安裝了水洗除塵裝置。故此大大提高了塔體的除塵效率。一般濕式空塔噴霧技術除塵效率一般在60-80%濕式靜電也不超過90%,而我們的濕式水洗除塵技術除塵技術高達98.5%也將脫硫后的顆粒物的排放濃度降到10mg/Nm3以下,達到超低排放標準。

3、投資少、故障率低

在目前應用的濕式靜電除塵技術中,投資大。且運行費用高、電耗大。且存在著運行不穩定的問題。而我們濕式除塵技術由于循環的是清水,且閉路循環,故此故障率低,效果穩定。系統可保證長期正常穩定運行,且維護量非常小。脫硫脫硝塔不含易造成結垢的部件,且采用氨堿液作為吸收液,有效避免了噴嘴的堵塞,不存在結垢和堵塞等問題。設備檢修不影響系統的正常運轉,系統正常運轉率98%以上。運行費用低。在傳統脫硫脫硝運行費用中脫硫脫硝劑費用占較大比例,而本系統使用硫酸銨做氨源且循環使用,理論上不消耗,實際循環的是石灰和極少量的氨以及催化劑,所以運行費用較低。

1. High denitrification efficiency

There is no special requirement for temperature of the flue gas, and the denitrification efficiency is up to 85 to 95% due to the adoption of advanced oxidation reduction technology and the synchronous completion of desulfurization. Therefore, the operating cost is low, which cannot be attained by "SCR" and "SNCR" currently. The used water of desulfurization and denitration applies closed cycle, and reclaimed water dechlorinating device has been deployed in order to avoid the discharge of waste water, without secondary pollution. In the desulfurization& denitration tower for flue gas, by multi-channel inverse&forward spray method, the absorption liquid has be injected into the flue gas. Under the drive of high speed airflow, the absorption liquid was blown into the mist shape with a larger specific surface area, allowing the gas-liquid contact more adequate, so as to ensure the stability of desulfurization and denitration efficiency.

2. Integration of desulfurization, denitration and dedusting

Due to the good activity of the recycled liquid undergoing oxidation and reduction, its absorption rate of SO2 is fast and efficient. According to the experimental results, the desulfurization efficiency reached 99.1%, which cannot be obtained by the lime - gypsum method and the limestone -gypsum method. Because the top tower body is equipped with a water washing dedusting device, the dedusting efficiency of the tower body has been greatly improved. In general, the dedusting efficiency of wet void tower spray technology is 60 to 80%, and the efficiency of wet static electricity is no more than 90%, while the efficiency of our wet water washing dedusting technology is up to 98.5%, meanwhile the emission concentration of particulate matter after desulfurization dropped to below 10mg/Nm3, reaching the ultra low emission standard.

3. Low investment, low failure rate

The currently applied wet electrostatic dedusting technology requires large investment, high operation cost and large power onsumption, as well as the problem of unstable operation. The circulated water in our wet dedusting technology is clean water, and losed cycle is applied, so the failure rate is low, the effect is stable. The system can guarantee long-term normal and stable operation, with ew maintenance quantity. Desulfurization& denitration tower does not contain components easy to cause scale formation and employs mmonia alkali solution as the absorption liquid, effectively avoiding the nozzle clogging and problems of scale formation and plugging. quipment maintenance does not affect the normal running of the system, and the system normal running rate reaches 98% or more, requiring low operating cost. Absorbent of desulfurization and denitrification accounted for a higher proportion in the traditional esulfurization& denitration operating cost, and the system uses ammonium sulfate as resource of ammonia, which has been recycled. The mmonium sulfate is not consumed in theory, while the matters in actual circulation are lime, tiny ammonia and catalysts, so the perating cost is lower.

(二)工藝流程及工作原理 / Process flow and working principle

1. 工藝流程圖   Process flow diagram

2. 設備連接   Device connection

3. 脫硫脫硝反應原理   Principle of desulfurization and denitrification reaction

本方案采用循環氨堿法吸收煙氣中的SO2和NOx,即用氨堿液作為脫硫脫硝劑,石灰作為氨堿循環再生劑。其基本原理是:氨進入脫硫塔內吸收煙氣中的二氧化硫、氮氧化物,再用石灰漿(主要成份為Ca(OH)2)將脫硫脫硝產物再生置換出氨重新返回到脫硫脫硝塔內脫硫脫硝。

The scheme adopts cycling ammonia-alkali method to absorb SO2 and NOx in flue gas, namely using ammonia alkali liquor as the absorbent of desulfurization and denitrification, and lime as ammonia alkali recycling agent. The basic principle is as follows: inject ammonia into the desulfurization tower to absorb sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the flue gas, and then use lime slurry (the main ingredient is Ca(OH)2) to regenerate the desulfurization and denitrification products for replacement of ammonia, finally the ammonia is returned to desulfurization& denitrification tower for desulfurization and denitrification.

主要反應機理如下:
The main reaction mechanism is as follows:

(1)二氧化硫、氮氧化物的吸收反應   Absorption reaction of SO2 and NOx

(2)氨堿液再生反應   Ammonia alkali regeneration reaction

(3)氨堿液再生反應   Intra-system side reaction

其中,催化劑1、催化劑2的作用是為了大幅度提高反應(1-3)、(2-1)、(2-2)的反應速度。
In the above, the function of catalyst 1 or catalyst 2 is to largely increase the reaction rate of (1-3), (2-1) and (2-2).

(三)設計原則 / Design principles

(1)脫硫脫硝工藝遵循技術成熟、設備先進運行穩定、操作維護方便、自動化程度較高、運行成本較低、無二次污染原則。能夠保證高可用率、高脫硫脫硝率、低石灰消耗量、低壓用電量及低耗水量,而且完全符合環境保護要求。
(2)脫硫脫硝系統從鍋爐爐型、負荷、爐后脫硫脫硝場地等諸多方面因素考慮,提出合理的脫硫脫硝工藝方案。
(3)脫硫脫硝工藝充分考慮鍋爐特點,系統阻力穩定,脫硫脫硝裝置在啟、停、運行及事故處理情況下不影響鍋爐正常運行。
(4)脫硫脫硝工藝適應鍋爐風量、溫度、SO2、NOx濃度等負荷變化與波動。
(5)脫硫脫硝工藝與設備布置合理,能滿足業主方提的總圖位置要求。文中所敘述的系統和布置是基本要求,通過詳細的工藝設計、實現所有的工程要求,建造一個完整的脫硫脫硝裝置。
(6)脫硫脫硝劑和副產物物料輸送、循環流暢,能力匹配。
(7)脫硫脫硝主體設備設計使用壽命不低于15年。
(8)脫硫脫硝劑價格比較低廉、易于獲得。
(9)脫硫脫硝裝置采用DCS控制,同時考慮與主體工程的信號連接,預留通訊接口。
(10)脫硫脫硝副產物石膏含水率小于10%,用汽車外運,綜合利用。
(11)脫硫脫硝后煙氣匯總后進煙囪(需防腐,需方負責)排放。
(12)整個煙氣脫硫脫硝系統的所有建(構)筑物布置與主體工程協調。并根據其工程設計的要和布置要求在所給定的區域范圍內優化,以使其工藝流程和布置合理、安全和經濟。
(13)脫硫脫硝區域水、電、氣使用,將在與主廠總管連接的分管道上安裝計量裝置,并將這些能源計量數據納入控制系統顯示,并預留與主裝置CEMS系統對接的信息接口。
(14)供方提出煙氣脫硫脫硝系統所需工業水(工藝水、各轉動設備的冷卻水)的水質、水壓、水量要求,以及儀用壓縮空氣用量和相關參數要求。需方將負責提煙氣脫硫脫硝系統所用的工業水源。煙氣脫硫脫硝系統所的壓縮空氣氣源由需方負責。煙氣脫硫脫硝系統在移交之前所的施工和調試用的工業水、蒸汽等將由需方提接口位置。要求,以及儀用壓縮空氣用量和相關參數要求。需方將負責提煙氣脫硫脫硝系統所用的工業水源。煙氣脫硫脫硝系統所的壓縮空氣氣源由需方負責。煙氣脫硫脫硝系統在移交之前所的施工和調試用的工業水、蒸汽等將由需方提接口位置。

(1) The desulfurization and denitrification process follows the principle of mature technology, advanced equipment, stable running, convenient operation and maintenance, high degree of automation, low operating costs and none secondary pollution. High availability, high desulfurization and denitrification rate, low lime consumption, low power consumption and low water consumption are ensured, and the standard of environmental protection is fully met.
(2) The desulfurization and denitrification system takes the boiler type, load, furnace rear desulfurization and denitrification sites, and many other factors into consideration, putting forward a reasonable desulfurization and denitrification process program.
(3) The desulfurization and denitrification process fully considers the characteristics of the boiler. The system resistance is stable. The desulfurization and denitrification device doesn’t affect the normal operating of the boiler in the start, stop, operating and accident handling conditions.
(4) The desulfurization and denitrification process adapts to air quantity, temperature, concentration of SO2 or NOx and other load changes and fluctuations of the boiler.
(5) The deploy of desulfurization & denitrification processes and devices is reasonable, meeting the requirements of placement of eneral layout proposed by the owner. The system and layout described in this paper are the basic requirements by detailed process design, all the engineering demands are achieved to construct a complete desulfurization and denitrification device.
(6) Material conveying and circulation of absorbent of desulfurization and denitrification and the by-products are smooth, with capability matching.
(7) The service life of the main equipment for desulfurization and denitrification is designed to be no less than 15 years.
(8) The absorbent of desulfurization and denitrification is relatively inexpensive and easy to be obtained.
(9) The desulfurization and denitrification device adopts DCS control, and takes the signal connection with the main project into consideration, reserving communication interface.
(10) Water content of desulfurization and denitrification by-product gypsum is less than 10%, and automobile is used for outward transport and comprehensive utilization of the by-product.
(11) The flue gas after desulfurization and denitrification is collected for discharge through chimney (anticorrosion is required and the demander is in charge).
(12) The deploy of all the buildings (structures) in the entire flue gas desulfurization and denitrification system should coordinate with the main project. The deploy should be optimized in the given area according to its engineering design and deploy requirements, so that the process flow and deploy are reasonable, safe and economic.
(13) For the use of water, electricity and gas in the area of desulfurization and denitrification, metering mechanism will be installed on the sub pipeline connected to the total pipeline of the main plant, and the energy metering data is incorporated in the control system for display, reserving the information interface jointing the CEMS system of the main device.
(14)The supplier puts forward requirements on water quality, water pressure and water volume of the industrial water (process water, cooling water of the rotating equipment) required by the flue gas desulfurization and denitrification system, as well as the requirements on the consumption of compressed air for instrument and related parameters. The demander will be responsible for the industrial water source used in the flue gas desulfurization and denitrification system. The demander is also responsible for the compressed air source used by the flue gas desulfurization and denitrification system. Before handing over of the flue gas desulfurization and denitrification system, the industrial water and steam used in construction and commissioning will be provided by the demander.

the industrial water (process water, cooling water of the rotating equipment) required by the flue gas desulfurization and denitrification system, as well as the requirements on the consumption of compressed air for instrument and related parameters. The demander will be responsible for the industrial water source used in the flue gas desulfurization and denitrification system. The demander is also responsible for the compressed air source used by the flue gas desulfurization and denitrification system. Before handing over of the flue gas desulfurization and denitrification system, the industrial water and steam used in construction and commissioning will be provided by the demander.


(四)性能參數及運行分析 / Performance parameters and operation analysis


 
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